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Population Sleep Studies









We are currently conducting several studies that involve analysis of existing population-level data. Please see below for past and ongoing projects.


The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics, part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and is unique in terms of population health surveillance programs. In addition to nationally-representative survey data, NHANES also includes detailed dietary information, objective examination data, and both blood and urine analyses for important biomarkers. We are currently using NHANES data to examine population sleep-health trends. Some examples of published papers from NHANES include:

Grandner, M. A., Schopfer, E. A., Sands-Lincoln, M., Jackson, N., and Malhotra, A. (In Press). The relationship between sleep duration and body mass index depends on age. Obesity.

Chakravorty, S., Siu, H. Y. K., Oliver, L., Brown, G. K., Findley, J., Perlis, M. L., and Grandner, M. A. (In Press). Insomnia symptoms and sleep duration as risk factors for suicidal ideation. Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders.

Jean-Pierre, P., Grandner, M. A., Garland, S. N., Henry, E., Jean-Louis, G., and Burish, T. G. (In Press). Self-reported memory problems in adult-onset cancer survivors in the United States: Effects of cardiovascular disease and insomnia. Sleep Medicine, 16:845-849.

Grandner, M. A., Chakravorty, S., Perlis, M. L., Oliver, L., and Gurubhagavatula, I. (2014). Habitual sleep duration associated with self-reported and objectively-determined cardiometabolic risk factors. Sleep Medicine, 15(1):42-50. NIHMSID: 535748.

Grandner, M. A., Jackson, N., Gerstner, J. R., and Knutson, K. L. (2014). Sleep difficulties associated with intake of specific dietary nutrients. Journal of Sleep Research, 23: 22-34. NIHMSID: 511301.

Chakravorty, S., Jackson, N., Chaudhary, N., Kozak, P., Perlis, M., Shue, H., and Grandner, M. A. (2014). Daytime sleepiness: Associations with alcohol use and sleep duration in Americans. Sleep Disorders, 2014: 959152.

Whinnery, J., Jackson, N., Rattanaumpawan, P., and Grandner, M. A. (2014). Short and Long Sleep Duration Associated with Race/Ethnicity, Sociodemographics, and Socioeconomic Position. SLEEP, (3):601-611.

Grandner, M. A., Buxton, O. M., Jackson, N., Sands, M., Pandey, A., and Jean-Louis, G. (2013). Extreme sleep durations and increased C-reactive protein: Effects of sex and ethnoracial group. SLEEP, 36(5): 769-779. PMCID:3624831.

Grandner, M. A., Jackson, N., Gerstner, J. R., and Knutson, K. L. (2013). Dietary nutrients associated with short and long sleep duration: data from a nationally representative sample. Appetite, 64(1), 71-80. PMCID:3703747.

Grandner, M. A., Ruiter Petrov, M. E., Jackson, N., Rattanaumpawan, P., Platt, A., and Patel, N. P. (2013). Sleep symptoms, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic position. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 9(9), 897-905. PMCID: 3746717.

Sands-Lincoln, M., Grandner, M. A., Whinnery, J., Keenan, B. T., Jackson, N., and Gurubhagavatula, I. (2013). The association between obstructive sleep apnea and hypertension by race/ethnicity in a nationally representative sample. Journal of Clinical Hypertension, 15(8): 593-599. PMCID: 3733493.



The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is an annual, state-based, telephone survey conducted by the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. It is a gold standard health surveillance tool. Although it does not include laboratory or other objective data, it includes a vary large sample (>400,000 adults annually) and includes detailed geographic data, including county of residence. We are currently using BRFSS to examine links between sleep and social, behavioral, and geographic factors. Some examples of published papers from BRFSS include:

Lalley-Chareczko, L. Segal, A. Perlis, M. L., and Grandner, M. A. (In Press). Sleep disturbance partially mediates the relationship between intimate partner violence and physical/mental health. Journal of Interpersonal Violence.

Williams, N. J., Grandner, M. A., Wallace, D. M., Cuffee, Y., Airihenbuwa, C., Okuyemi, K., Ogedegbe, G., and Jean-Louis, G. (In Press). Determinants of insufficient sleep among black and white Americans: The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Sleep Medicine.

Grandner, M. A., Jackson, N., Izci-Balserak, B., Gallagher, R. A., Murray-Bachmann, R., Williams, N., Patel, N. P., and Jean-Louis, G. (2015). Social and behavioral determinants of perceived insufficient sleep. Frontiers in Neurology, 6:122.

Grandner, M. A., Smith, T. E., Jackson, N., Jackson, T., Burgard, S., and Branas, C. (2015). Geographic distribution of insufficient sleep across the US: A county-level hotspot analysis. Sleep Health, 1: 158-165.

Maia, Q., Grandner, M. A., Findley, J., and Gurubhagavatula, I. (2013). Short sleep duration associated with drowsy driving and the role of perceived sleep insufficiency. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 59: 618-622. PMCID: 3771664.

Grandner, M. A., Hale, L., Jackson, N., Patel, N. P., Gooneratne, N. S., and Troxel, W. (2012). Perceived racial discrimination as an independent predictor of sleep disturbance and daytime fatigue. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 10(4):235-249. PMCID:3434973.

Grandner, M. A., Jackson, N. J., Pak, V. M., and Gehrman, P. R. (2012). Sleep disturbance is associated with cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. Journal of Sleep Research, 21(4):427-433. PMCID:3703752.

Grandner, M. A., Martin, J. L., Patel, N. P., Jackson, N. J., Gehrman, P. R., Pien, G. W., Perlis, M. L., Xie, D., Sha, D., Weaver, T., and Gooneratne, N. S. (2012). Age and sleep disturbances among American men and women: Data from the U.S. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. SLEEP, 35(3):395-406. PMCID:3274341.

Grandner, M. A., Jackson, N. J., Pigeon, W. R., Gooneratne, N. S., and Patel, N. P. (2012). State and regional prevalence of sleep disturbance and daytime fatigue. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 8(1):77-86. PMCID:3266332.

Altman, N. G., Schopfer, E., Izci-Balserak, B., Jackson, N. J., Ratamaupawan, P., Gehrman, P. R., Patel, N. P., and Grandner, M. A. (2012). Sleep duration versus sleep insufficiency as predictors of cardiometabolic health outcomes. Sleep Medicine, 13(10):1261-1270. PMCID:3527631.

Grandner, M. A., Patel, N. P., Perlis, M. L., Gehrman, P., R., Xie, D., Sha, D., Pigeon, W., Teff, K., Weaver, T., and Gooneratne, N. (2011). Obesity, diabetes and exercise associated with sleep-related complaints in the American population. Journal of Public Health, 19:463-74. PMCID:3392306.

Grandner, M.A., Patel, N. P., Gehrman, P. R., Xie, D., Sha, D., Weaver, T. and Gooneratne, N. (2010). Who gets the best sleep? Ethnic and socioeconomic factors related to sleep disturbance. Sleep Medicine, 11(4):470-8. PMCID:2861987.

uk biobank

The UK Biobank is a data repository developed and curated by the British government and the National HealtH System (NHS). It consists of data from hundreds of thousands of British healthcare users, including data on a number of sleep and functional outcomes. We are using the UK biobank data to examine the role of sleep and cardiovascular disease risk at the population level. For example:

Patterson, F. Malone, S. K., Lozano, A., Grandner, M. A., and Hanlon, A. L. (In Press). Smoking, sedentary behavior, and diet associated with habitual sleep duration and chronotype: Data from the UK Biobank. Annals of Behavioral Medicine.


The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics, part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, is a large, national survey of health and health-related factors in the US population. Since the NHIS has been in use since the 1970s, we are using these data to examine trends in the relationship between sleep and health over time. For example:

Jean-Louis, G., Grandner, M. A., Youngstedt, S. D., Williams, N. J., Zizi, F., Sarpong, D., and Ogedegbe, G. (2015). Unequal burden of sleep-related obesity among black and white Americans. Sleep Health. 1: 169-176.


The National Violent Death Reporting System is managed by the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, as part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. It includes detailed death records from a large number of states across the US. We are currently using these data to understand the role of circadian time, insomnia, and suicide. For example:

Perlis, M. L., Grandner, M. A., Brown, G. K., Basner, M., Chakravorty, S., Morales, K. H., Gehrman, P. R., Chaudhary, N. S., Thase, M. E., and Dinges, D. F. (In Press). Nocturnal wakefulness: A previously unrecognized risk factor for suicide. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry.


The REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study is funded by the National Institutes of HealthNational Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). The project is a collaborative effort between the University of Alabama at Birmingham (School of Public Health)the University of VermontWake Forest University School of Medicinethe University of Arkansas for Medical SciencesAlabama Neurological Institute, and Examination Management Services, Inc. It is a rich dataset aimed specifically at cardiovascular and stroke outcomes at a national level. We are currently using this dataset to examine sleep-related risk factors for stroke. For example:

Petrov, M. E., Letter, A. J., Howard, V. J., Kleindorfer, D., Grandner, M. A., and Molano, J. R. (2014). Over-the-counter and prescription sleep medication and incident stroke symptoms: The REGARDS study. Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, 23 (8): 2110-2116.







 University of Arizona | Department of Psychiatry | Department of Psychology | Banner-University Medical Center

Sleep & Health Research Program
1501 N Campbell Ave, Box 245002, UAHS Suite 7326, Tucson, AZ 85724-5002
(520) 626-4746 |

© 2012-2015 Michael Grandner and/or the Arizona Board of Regents. All rights reserved.